The Five Points of Calvinism
This system of theology was reaffirmed by
the Synod of Dordt in 1619 as the doctrine of salvation
contained in the Holy Scriptures. The system was at that time formulated into "five points" in answer
to the unscriptural five points submitted by the Arminians to the Church of Holland in 1610.
According to Calvinism:
Salvation is accomplished by the almighty power of the triune God. The Father chose a people, the Son
died for them, the Holy Spirit makes Christ's death effective by bringing the elect to faith and
repentance, thereby causing them to willingly obey the Gospel. The entire process (election, redemption, regeneration) is the work of God and is by grace alone. Thus God, not man, determines who will be the recipients of the gift of salvation.
The Five Points of Calvinism are easily remembered by the acrostic TULIP
Total Depravity (Total Inability)
Total Depravity is probably the most misunderstood
tenet of Calvinism. When Calvinists speak of humans as "totally
depraved," they are making an extensive, rather than an intensive
statement. The effect of the fall upon man is that sin has extended
to every part of his personality -- his thinking, his emotions,
and his will.
Not necessarily that he is intensely sinful, but that sin has extended to his entire being.
The unregenerate (unsaved) man is dead in
his sins (Romans 5:12). Without the power of the Holy Spirit,
the natural man is blind and deaf to the message of the gospel
(Mark 4:11f). This is why Total Depravity has also been called
"Total Inability." The man without a knowledge of God
will never come to this knowledge
without God's making him alive through Christ (Ephesians 2:1-5).
Unconditional Election is the doctrine which
states that God chose those whom he was pleased to bring to a
knowledge of himself, not based upon any merit shown by the object
of his grace and not based upon his looking forward to discover
who would "accept" the offer of the gospel. God has
elected, based solely upon the
counsel of his own will, some for glory and others for damnation (Romans 9:15,21). He has done this act before the foundations of the world (Ephesians 1:4-8).
This doctrine does not rule out, however,
man's responsibility to believe in the redeeming work of God the
Son (John 3:16-18). Scripture presents a tension between God's
sovereignty in salvation, and man's responsibility to believe
which it does not try to resolve. Both are true -- to deny man's
responsibility is to affirm an
unbiblical hyper-calvinism; to deny God's sovereignty is to affirm an unbiblical Arminianism.
The elect are saved unto good works (Ephesians
2:10). Thus, though good works will never bridge the gulf between
man and God that was formed in the Fall, good works are a result
of God's saving grace. This is what Peter means when he admonishes
the Christian reader to make his "calling" and "election"
sure (I Peter
2:10). Bearing the fruit of good works is an indication that God has sown seeds of grace in fertile soil.
Limited Atonement (Particular Redemption)
Limited Atonement is a doctrine offered
in answer to the question, "for whose sins did Christ atone?"
The Bible teaches that Christ died for those whom God gave him
to save (John 17:9). Christ died, indeed, for many people, but
not all (Matthew 26:28). Specifically, Christ died for the invisible
Church -- the sum total of all those
who would ever rightly bear the name "Christian" (Ephesians 5:25).
This doctrine often finds many objections,
mostly from those who think that Limited Atonement does damage
to evangelism. We have already seen that Christ will not lose
any that the father has given to him (John 6:37). Christ's death
was not a death of potential atonement for all people. Believing
that Jesus' death was a
potential, symbolic atonement for anyone who might possibly, in the future, accept him trivializes Christ's act of atonement. Christ died to atone for specific sins of specific sinners. Christ died to make holy the church. He did not atone for all men, because obviously all men are not saved. Evangelism is actually lifted up in this
doctrine, for the evangelist may tell his congregation that Christ died for sinners, and that he will not lose any of those for whom he died!
The result of God's Irresistible Grace is
the certain response by the elect to the inward call of the Holy
Spirit, then the outward call is given by the evangelist or minister
of the Word of God. Christ, himself, teaches that all whom God
has elected will come to a knowledge of him (John 6:37). Men come
to Christ in salvation when
the Father calls them (John 6:44), and the very Spirit of God leads God's beloved to repentance (Romans 8:14). What a comfort it is to know that the gospel of Christ will penetrate our hard, sinful hearts and wondrously save us through the gracious inward call of the Holy Spirit (I Peter 5:10)!
Perseverance of the Saints
Perserverance of the Saints is a doctrine
which states that the saints (those whom God has saved) will remain
in God's hand until they are glorified and brought to abide with
him in heaven. Romans 8:28-39 makes it clear that when a person
truly has been regenerated by God, he will remain in God's stead.
The work of sanctification
which God has brought about in his elect will continue until it reaches its fulfillment in eternal life (Phil. 1:6). Christ assures the elect that he will not lose them and that they will be glorified at the "last day" (John 6:39). The Calvinist stands upon the Word of God and trusts in Christ's promise that he will perfectly fulfill the will of the
Father in saving all the elect.